Wednesday, March 19, 2014

2014 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Report from the Alzheimer's Association

The "2014 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures" report from the Alzheimer's Association has been released. It is available as a .pdf document at Facts and Figures and has an accompanying YouTube video.

Tuesday, March 04, 2014

Neuropsychology Abstract of the Day

Robinson, G. & Ceslis, A. (2014). An unusual presentation of probable dementia: Rhyming, associations, and verbal disinhibition. J Neuropsychol. doi: 10.1111/jnp.12041. [Epub ahead of print]

We report a case of probable Alzheimer's disease who presented with the unusual feature of disinhibited rhyming. Core language skills were largely intact but generative language was characterized by semantic-based associations, evident in tangential and associative content, and phonology-based associations, evident in rhyming, in the context of prominent executive dysfunction. We suggest this pattern is underpinned by a failure to terminate or inhibit verbal associations resulting in a 'loosening' of associations at the level of conceptual preparation for spoken language.
© 2014 The British Psychological Society.

PMID: 24581283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Monday, March 03, 2014

Alzheimer's: "Still Alice" - The Movie!

I commonly use Lisa Genova's wonderful novel, "Still Alice" as a text in the courses I teach about Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

If you are a fan of the work as I am, you will be perhaps interested to know that filming for the movie has entered production. Shooting is taking place in New York City.

The film stars Julianne Moore, Alec Baldwin, Kristen Stewart, and Kate Bosworth, under the direction of Richard Glatzer and Wash Westmoreland.

Maria Shriver is the Executive Producer. Release date sometime in 2015.

Friday, December 27, 2013

Coursera Opens 2014 With Two Exceptional Neuroscience Offerings

Coursera rings in the new year with second offerings of two exceptional neuroscience courses. These courses are "Drugs and the Brain" and "Medical Neuroscience," first offered in December 2012-January 2013 and April through June of 2013, respectively. Both begin in 2014 by the end of the first week in January.

"Drugs and the Brain" is a course by Dr. Henry Lester of CalTech. Dr. Lester is an international expert in neurotransmitter transport mechanisms and models of addiction. The course looks at the relationship between drugs (illicit, recreational, approved medications, and investigational products) and cellular activity. Mechanisms of intracellular and intercellular activity are explored. Addictions, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric conditions are examined. Two additional weeks have been added to the course for this second offering. The recommended text for the course is: Eric Nestler, Steven Hyman, and Robert Malenka (2008). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (Second Edition). NY: McGraw-Hill.

From the online course description: "You’ll learn how drugs enter the brain, how they act on receptors and ion channels, and how “molecular relay races” lead to changes in nerve cells and neural circuits that far outlast the drugs themselves. “Drugs and the Brain” also describes how scientists are gathering the knowledge required for the next steps in preventing or alleviating Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, and drug abuse."

"Medical Neuroscience" is a course by Dr. Leonard White of Duke. Dr. White is an extraordinary educator - this MOOC is but one of this innovative approaches to medical education. This course is a foundational course about nervous system structure and function, all with a focus on examining neurological diseases and related cognitive disorders. The recommended text for the course is: Dale Purves and colleagues (2012). Medical Neuroscience (Fifth Edition). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

From the online course description: "The overall goal is to equip students in the health professions for interpreting impairments of sensation, action and cognition that accompany neurological injury, disease or dysfunction. Students currently pursuing advanced studies in the brain sciences will benefit from this course by learning the fundamentals of functional human neuroanatomy and how neuroscience discovery translates to clinical practice. Health professionals will benefit from the opportunity to review and update knowledge of foundational medical neuroscience."

Three differences distinguish the two courses: (1) coverage, (2) length, and (3) their average per week time commitment on the part of students.

Dr. Lester's course is not designed to be a comprehensive overview to neuroscience and is not geared toward medical issues per se. You will learn neurotransmitter function and pharmacological impact upon that function from an expert in the field. Dr. White's course is designed as a foundational overview to clinical neuroscience. There are nearly 10 hours of initial video just for coverage of gross neuroanatomy. The midcourse coverage of sensory and motor systems is the best I have experienced.

Dr. Lester's course is seven weeks long, whilst Dr. White's is twelve weeks long.

Dr. Lester's course requires about 4-to-6 hours a week. Interested students will probably add an extra couple of hours a week examining the recommended textbook and recommended additional readings. Dr. White's course requires at least 15 hours a week for students who already know something about neuroscience and at least 20 hours a week for students new to the field.

Despite these logistical differences, both courses are alike for providing a wonderful educational experience for students. The recommended textbooks are excellent (I teach my own brain and behavior courses and look at about a dozen of these texts a year, so I say this from a fairly experienced perspective). Both courses offer challenging examinations. Both courses are managed by great TAs, who are responsive to student requests and enquiries. Last time around, Justin, the TA for the Medical Neuroscience course held a soft open for the course a week ahead of time, which allowed students new to Coursera to get a feel for the user interface and to meet one another. The Discussion Forums for both courses are extremely useful.

Both courses are offered in English. English subtitles are available. It will be curious if additional subtitles from other languages are made available as Coursera as a platform becomes more comfortable with an international student body.

In the first version of the courses, Dr. Lester's course had roughly 64,000 students registered during the final week of the course, of which roughly 9,100 logged in during a typical week in the second half of the course and, of whom, 4,450 students passed the course and received a Statement of Accomplishment. A little over 30% of students who identified themselves by nation identified themselves as being in the US, the next largest groups were in Spain and in Brazil.

I recommend these two courses to you, if you have an interest in neuropsychology, in neurology, and/or in neuroscience. [Self-disclosure: I successfully completed Dr. Lester's course, but the time commitment was too great to complete Dr. White's course.] I will be taking both courses again, out of general interest and hope to see you in the Discussion Forums. There are unique features to both and these features are fine enough to motivate future students, current undergraduate and graduate students, and those interested in continuing their education beyond their degrees...even the second time around!

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Parkinson's Disease: Dr. Mahlon DeLong Awarded

An entry at the Dana Foundation Blog:

Mahlon DeLong Wins Breakthrough Prize for Parkinson's Research
16 December 2013

Read the blog entry

NIH "BRAIN Initiative" Funding Opportunities

From the NIH:

NIH announces six funding opportunities for the BRAIN Initiative in fiscal 2014
17 December 2013
Opportunities focus on developing tools and technologies for advancing our understanding of brain circuitry

Read the press release

Saturday, December 14, 2013

The Selling of ADHD

The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder
by Alan Schwarz
The New York Times
15 December 2013

Read the full article

Monday, December 02, 2013

Alzheimer's Disease: Genomic Data

Press release from the NIH:

NIH deposits first batch of genomic data for Alzheimer’s disease
Researchers gain rapid access to first set of raw human genome sequence
02 December 2013

[snip]

"Researchers can now freely access the first batch of genome sequence data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced today. The ADSP is one of the first projects undertaken under an intensified national program of research to prevent or effectively treat Alzheimer’s disease.

"The first data release includes data from 410 individuals in 89 families. Researchers deposited completed WGS data on 61 families and have deposited WGS data on parts of the remaining 28 families, which will be completed soon. WGS determines the order of all 3 billion letters in an individual’s genome. Researchers can access the sequence data at dbGaP or the National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS), https://www.niagads.org .

"“Providing raw DNA sequence data to a wide range of researchers proves a powerful crowd-sourced way to find genomic changes that put us at increased risk for this devastating disease,” said NIH Director, Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., who announced the start of the project in February 2012. “The ADSP is designed to identify genetic risks for late-onset of Alzheimer’s disease, but it could also discover versions of genes that protect us. These insights could lead to a new era in prevention and treatment.”"

[snip]

Read the full press release

Sunday, December 01, 2013

Congratulations, Dr. Nancy Helm-Estabrooks (Dr. Edith Kaplan Award)

WCU’s Helm-Estabrooks is honored by Massachusetts Neuropsychology Society
The Sylva Herald
26 November 2013

Read article

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

TED Talk: Dr. Suzana Herculano-Houzel - 86 Billion Neurons and Cooking!

A fine TED Talk made available today, from June of this year:

"What is so special about the human brain?"

Sunday, November 10, 2013

Epilepsy: FDA Approves Aptiom (eslicarbazepine acetate) to Treat Seizures in Adults

From the FDA:

FDA approves Aptiom to treat seizures in adults
08 November 2013

"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Aptiom (eslicarbazepine acetate) as an add-on medication to treat seizures associated with epilepsy."

Read the news release

Monday, November 04, 2013

About Poet Susan Schultz and Her Work "Dementia Blog"

From the Jacket2: Poemtalk website:

"Loss in Reverse (PoemTalk #40)"
Read and listen

Thursday, October 31, 2013

FDA: Approval of Alzheimer's Neuroimaging Diagnostic Drug, Vizamyl (flutemetamol F 18 injection)

From the FDA on the 25th of October, quoting the press release:

FDA approves second brain imaging drug to help evaluate patients for Alzheimer’s disease, dementia

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vizamyl (flutemetamol F 18 injection), a radioactive diagnostic drug for use with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the brain in adults being evaluated for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia.

Dementia is associated with diminishing brain functions such as memory, judgment, language and complex motor skills. The dementia caused by AD is associated with the accumulation in the brain of an abnormal protein called beta amyloid and damage or death of brain cells. However, beta amyloid can also be found in the brain of patients with other dementias and in elderly people without neurologic disease.

Vizamyl works by attaching to beta amyloid and producing a PET image of the brain that is used to evaluate the presence of beta amyloid. A negative Vizamyl scan means that there is little or no beta amyloid accumulation in the brain and the cause of the dementia is probably not due to AD. A positive scan means that there is probably a moderate or greater amount of amyloid in the brain, but it does not establish a diagnosis of AD or other dementia. Vizamyl does not replace other diagnostic tests used in the evaluation of AD and dementia.

“Many Americans are evaluated every year to determine the cause of diminishing neurologic functions, such as memory and judgment, that raise the possibility of Alzheimer’s disease,” said Shaw Chen, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Drug Evaluation IV in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Imaging drugs like Vizamyl provide physicians with important tools to help evaluate patients for AD and dementia.”

Vizamyl is the second diagnostic drug available for visualizing beta amyloid on a PET scan of the brain. In 2012, FDA approved Amyvid (Florbetapir F 18 injection) to help evaluate adults for AD and other causes of cognitive decline.

Vizamyl’s effectiveness was established in two clinical studies comprised of 384 participants with a range of cognitive function. All participants were injected with Vizamyl and were scanned. The images were interpreted by five independent readers masked to all clinical information. A portion of scan results were also confirmed by autopsy.

The study results demonstrate that Vizamyl correctly detects beta amyloid in the brain. The results also confirm that the scans are reproducible and trained readers can accurately interpret the scans. Vizamyl’s safety was established in a total of 761 participants.

Vizamyl is not indicated to predict the development of AD or to check how patients respond to treatment for AD. Vizamyl PET images should be interpreted only by health care professionals who successfully complete training in an image interpretation program. The Vizamyl drug labeling includes information about image interpretation.

Safety risks associated with Vizamyl include hypersensitivity reactions and the risks associated with image misinterpretation and radiation exposure. Common side effects associated with Vizamyl include flushing, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea and dizziness.

Press Release

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Alzheimer's Disease: New Risk Genes Discovered

From Cardiff University News Centre:

New Alzheimer’s risk genes discovered in record study
27 October 2013

"In the largest ever study of its kind, an international collaboration of scientists, jointly led by Cardiff, has uncovered 11 new susceptibility genes linked with Alzheimer’s disease.

"This major breakthrough will significantly advance scientists’ knowledge of Alzheimer’s. It throws open new research avenues and enables a better understanding of the disease’s disordered functional processes."

Read the full press release here.

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

MOOCs: HarvardX "Fundamentals of Clinical Trials"

The HarvardX edX course "Fundamentals of Clinical Trials" started yesterday. Here is some information about the course [click here].

The content for Week One is quite good and presented well by the course faculty.

From the course information page:

[snip]

"This course will provide an introduction to the scientific, statistical, and ethical aspects of clinical trials research. Topics include the design, implementation, and analysis of trials, including first-in-human studies (dose-finding, safety, proof of concept, and Phase I), Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV studies. All aspects of the development of a study protocol will be addressed, including criteria for the selection of participants, treatments, and endpoints, randomization procedures, sample size determination, data analysis, and study interpretation. The ethical issues that arise at each phase of therapy development will be explored.

"This course contains 12 modules. The modules will be released Monday of each week, with the exception of some holiday weeks. Most students should plan to spend 4 – 6 hours on each module. Students will have until February 14, 2014 to earn a HarvardX certificate."

[snip]