Relationships Between Behavioral Syndromes and Cognitive Domains in Alzheimer Disease: The Impact of Mood and Psychosis
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2011 Nov 1;
Koppel J, Goldberg TE, Gordon ML, Huey E, Davies P, Keehlisen L, Huet S, Christen E, Greenwald BS
OBJECTIVES:: Behavioral disturbances occur in nearly all Alzheimer disease (AD) patients together with an array of cognitive impairments. Prior investigations have failed to demonstrate specific associations between them, suggesting an independent, rather than shared, pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to reexamine this issue using an extensive cognitive battery together with a sensitive neurobehavioral and functional rating scale to correlate behavioral syndromes and cognitive domains across the spectrum of impairment in dementia. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional study of comprehensive cognitive and behavioral ratings in subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment. SETTING:: Memory disorders research center. PARTICIPANTS:: Fifty subjects with AD and 26 subjects with mild cognitive impairment; and their caregivers. MEASUREMENTS:: Cognitive rating scales administered included the Mini-Mental State Examination; the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; the Boston Naming Test; the Benton Visual Retention Test; the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychology Assessment; the Controlled Oral Word Test; the Wechsler Memory Scale logical memory I and logical memory II task; the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised digit span; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised digit symbol task; and the Clock Drawing Task together with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. RESULTS:: Stepwise regression of cognitive domains with symptom domains revealed significant associations of mood with impaired executive function/speed of processing (Δr = 0.22); impaired working memory (Δr = 0.05); impaired visual memory (Δr = 0.07); and worsened Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (Δr = 0.08). Psychosis was significantly associated with impaired working memory (Δr = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS:: Mood symptoms appear to impact diverse cognitive realms and to compromise functional performance.
PMID: 22048323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]